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IJ BHARY '^^^1::^ ( ) V T UE 

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Till-: <;iKT ()i- 

H. R. Plulau 



\ : 

Wf IV. or mvQiit. 

lEe Peoples of the 
Philippine Islands 


San Francisco, XMki^nim 

Niii«t«eeii HtmdrMl and Six 


The Peoples 

01 villi 

Philippine Islands 

Captain Hcnr\) 13a % Thelan 

u. S. {'. 


San Francisco, California 

C^tneteen Hundred and Six 

T>ettner. Trovers T^ress, Inc. 
San Francisco and Oakland 




Requests the pleasure of your presence at its Eighth Meeting 

Cloyne Court, Berkeley, 

Tuesday evening, April seventeenth, 1906 

At eight o'clock 


Captain U. S. Volunteers 

Will speak on 

The Peoples of the Philippine Islands 

Illustrating with an exhibition of ethnological specimens. 

flA few hours after the conclusion of the lecture so announced, the 
disastrous earthquake of April 16th occurred, and in the general 
conflagration which followed, the lecturer's valuable collection of 
ethnological specimens, photographs and maps was totally destroyed 
in San Francisco. 

QOwing to this mishap, the text remains unaccompanied by the 
illustrations intended to appear with it. 

flit is hoped nevertheless, that the reader's interest in the subject and 
indulgence for the imperfect manner in which it is treated, may be 
such as to induce him to follow to the end the author in hb wan- 
derings among the many different tribes of the Philippine Islands. 

Henry Du *!i. 'Pbelan. 

Fort T^osecrans 

San 'Diego, California 

September 14, 1906 

The Peoples of the Philippine Islands 


United Stales IJolunteera 

TO treat of the folk-lore of such a country as the Philippines is no 
easy matter, or rather no simple matter, since the Philippine Is- 
lands are not inhabited by a single people, but by an agglomera- 
tion of tribes distinctive in physique, habits, religion and origin. Any 
single one of these heterogeneous tribes could afford sufficient material 
for a separate lecture. Hence my object will not be to give a minute 
and complete description of the Filipino races, but to confine myself 
to a mere apergu of the customs of some of the tribes, while giving 
ampler detail as to others. 

I shall now refer to a map of the Archipelago and call attention to 
the fact that while these islands are for the sake of convenience divided 
into three groups: Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao, they really 
consist of a single great group of from 1200 to 1400 islands and islets, 
inhabited by a population of eight to ten million individuals. 

Without going deeply into the ethnology of the Philippines, I 
must say a few words about the racial differences of the interesting 
people with whom we are now occupied, in order that I may more 
readily be followed in my wanderings over the islands. 

No two authors of those whom I have consulted, agree as to 
the classification of the many dift'erent Filipino tribes. I have, therefore, 
adopted the one accepted by the U. S. Government, which recognizes 
three groups : the Negritos or blacks, the Indonesians and the Malays. 

Unlike the native races of America, the Filipino tribes have left 
us no monuments as evidence of an early civilization. Nor do we 
find in their country mounds such as have been discovered in America, 
the exploration of which has thrown so much light on the cUvStoms 
of the early inhabitants of this land. And yet, it is known that certain 
of the tribes of the Philippines possessed a written language previous 
to the advent of the Spaniards. It is also reported that their legends 
were preserved in a written form up to that eventful period. 

From 1521 to the present time, the Philippine people have been 
closely studied and described by the Spanish Friars who accompanied 
the discoverers of the Archipelago, and who remained ever since in 
close contact with the population thereof. Much of our knowledge 
of the Philippines has thus been acquired from the writings of these 
early pioneers of civilization. 

On the other hand, the Spanish who have to such a marked degree 
the faculty of imposing their religion, language and habits upon a 
conquered people, to the point even of obliterating race characteristics 
in them, have by this very faculty, destroyed almost all vestiges of 
past native history. 

The Conquistadores found Mexico inhabited by certain highly 
civilized people who dwelt in well built cities, some of the monuments 
of which, in the language of the invaders themselves, equaled in mag- 
nificence the palaces of the Old World. Instead of preserving them, 
however, they destroyed them, as they believed that they were so 


saturated with paganism as to be unfit for preservation: witness the 
magnificent Aztec temple of the City of Mexico which was razed to 
the ground to make room for the present Cathedral of that historical 
and beautiful city. 

In the Philippines, the Spaniards found no temples to destroy, no 
monuments to demolish ; but they did find legends which they in time 
eradicated from the memory of the people, and certain religious 
practices which they altered, and in a fashion, grafted upon their own 
religious rites, so as to eliminate from them their pagan aspect. 

Therefore, today, the civilized Filipino tribes do not present to 
us purely native customs and beliefs. They have been so altered by 
their contact with the dominant races as to have lost most of their 
peculiar cachet. To study the folk-lore of the Philippines in its 
purity, we must then turn to the pagan tribes who are to this day 
rebellious to civilization and subjugation. 

Let it be here understood that the three races already enumerated, 
have not remained untinged with foreign blood. On the contrary, 
by their numerous crossings, they have formed no less than 62 different 
tribes among which it would be difficult to find individuals of pure 
stock, save among certain of the Negritos. 

The Indonesians who settled mostly in Mindano and other south- 
ern islands, have formed 16 different tribes, among which are the 
Manobos, Bagobos, Montesse, Subanos, Mandayas, etc. The Ma\a.ys, 
by their crossings with the Negritos, have formed 28 different tribes, 
among which are the Igorrotes, Tinitianos, Tandolanos, etc. Their 
mixture with the Indonesians has formed 7 tribes of Moros, Samales, 
Ycanes, etc; finally their crossing with the Chinese has formed 11 
other tribes known as the Pampangos, Cimarrones, Tanguianes, Taga- 
logs, Visayas, etc. 

From this enumeration of tribes it can readily be seen that it 
is no easy matter in a short space of time to pay a visit to each one of 
them and to note the customs of these many colored and widely differ- 
ing people whom, by the fortune of war, we have taken into our fold 
as brothers or subjects. 


It is generally conceded that the Negritos are the true aborigines 
of the Philippine Islands. Whence they came is as yet and possibly 
ever will remain undetermined. While resembling in certain of their 
features the native blacks of Australia as well as those of other coun- 
tries, yet they are identical with none ; and for that reason, are supposed 
by some ethnologists to form a race apart. 

Weak and cowardly, rather than to resist the advent of the strong- 
er people who since came to the island, they receded from the coast 
to the mountains where they drag out a miserable existence like so 
many wild beasts. Out of reach of the influences of civilization, with- 
out means of communication with those of their own race, they have 
formed no settlement anywhere, but lead a nomadic life, scattered over 
several islands, such as Luzon, where, under the name of Attas, they 
are found in the province of Cagayan, in those of Ilocos Norte and 
Sur, Bulacan, Zambales, where they are called Aetas, Camarines Norte, 
where they number 1000 individuals, Bataan, Camarines Sur, Tayabas 
and Albay. They are also found in small numbers in the most in- 
accessible parts of the mountains of the province of Antique, (Panay), 


and finally in the island of Negros, where they were once so numerous 
as to have given their name to that fertile island. With their number, 
which scarcely reaches twenty thousand, constantly decreasing, they 
tend ere long to disappear altogether. 

They are short in stature, the men measuring on an average 55 
inches (4 feet 7 inches) and the women a little less. Their skin is 
black, their lips heavy and the hair is w^oolly. 

All these members of the scattered Negrito family present this 
in common that they lead a nomadic life. They will form no villages ; 
scarcely will they group together in small numbers. Those in the 
province of Camarines Norte sometimes construct fragile huts with 
bamboo poles and palm leaves for their protection during the rainy 
season. As a safeguard against the mosquitos they keep a fire burning 
during the night beneath the bamboo floor upon which they lie, and 
often rise in the morning fairly roasted and covered with blisters. 

They appear to cherish an inborn enmity for all human beings, 
and spend their life concealed in the crevices of rocks and the thick- 
ness of the forests. 

They wander about naked, save for a breech cloth, and will sleep 
where night overtakes them. The women are scarcely better attired 
than the men, and attach less importance to their dress than to the 
few trinkets which form their adornment. These consist of bracelets 
and earrings of iron or brass, wire necklaces and sometimes glass beads. 
With a bamboo comb in their hair and a narrow strip of cloth around 
their hips they complete their wardrobe. Those who are mothers, 
require in addition a sling by the means of which they carry their 
offspring on their back. The young negrito usually first sees the 
light on the banks of stream in which he soon after takes his first 
plunge and then departs with his parents who name him after the 
plant or tree near which he was born. 

The Negritos cultivate nothing, and live upon whatever nature 
places within their reach, be it snakes, worms or grasshoppers. 
Lacking these, they devour roots and herbs. Sometimes they descend 
upon a ranch and carry off all the rice they can steal and transport. 
At other times they exchange wild honey and wax for rice and it is 
on these occasions only that the Negritos become visible. Being non 
producers they are often at loss to find articles to trade, and in the 
island of Negros, they have been known to have exchanged their child- 
ren for a knife, hatchet or other cheap utensil. The children thus 
acquired by the Christians are seldom grateful to their masters for 
the betterment of their condition, and return to their savage life at 
the first opportunity. 

They sometimes hunt monkeys and other small game, using for 
that purpose the bow and arrow. Their only other arms are the 
bolo and the knife. 

The intelHgence of these people is on a par with their habits, 
that is of the lowest order. And yet while they readily acquire a speak- 
ing knowledge of the dialects of the tribes near which they roain and 
from whom they obtain their rice, but few Filipinos ever learn the 
Negrito language. 

Those of the province of Camarines Norte keep dogs which they 
feed on raw cocoanut and on the intestines of the game they kill, they 
themselves devouring ;all the rest. 


The Negritos appear to have no religion, but they observe a few 
practices which indicate a behef in spirits. 

Their marriage customs vary according to locality. In certain 
provinces of Southern I^uzon unions are contracted according to fancy, 
irrespective of blood relationship, and without any formality. In 
Camarines Norte the parents first agree upon the number of bows and 
arrows and knives which are to be given by the man to the parents of 
the girl. The girl is then concealed and if the groom is able to dis- 
cover her she becomes at once his wife. 

Their amusements are of the simplest kind and consist in a 
dance executed in a circle while striking the ground with the foot and 
chanting a monotonous song. 

The Negritos respect their dead. Those of Camarines Norte not- 
ify their friends upon the decease of a member of the tribe, and these 
arrive, bringing with them all the game they may have killed on the 
way. The body is wrapped in the bark of a tree and sealed up with a 
mixture of earth and tar. It remains unbxn*ied many days. 

The funeral ceremony lasts as long as there is anything to eat 
and drink. The body is then buried in an upright position beneath the 
hut of the deceased, which is then burned, and the family moves else- 

It is not known what remedy they employ in sickness; but it is 
a fact that they abandon those who are afflicted with small-pox or 

Such are these timid, harmless children of nature, who will neither 
fight for pleasure nor gain, but who are so jealous of their independence 
as to avenge themselves upon anyone who seeks to deprive them of 
that which they most cherish. 


Passing from the simple Negritos, we come to the Indonesians, 
who stand a little higher in the human family. They are supposed to 
have followed the Negritos to the Philippines and to have driven them 
away from the coast to the interior of the land. However, they do not 
appear to have settled anywhere but in the southern islands where the 
Negritos exist no longer, chiefly in Mindanao, where they number 
many thousands, divided into several tribes, each liaving different dia- 
lects, customs and beliefs. 

Unlike the Negritos, the Indonesians usually form pueblos and 
recognize a divinity as well as a temporary ruler. But they are equally 
fond of their independence, and will neither submit to the domination 
of neighboring tribes nor to the influences of civilization. They are 
pagans, and as such they enjoy a greater degree of freedom than if they 
were Christians. The Spanish government never succeeded in con- 
quering them. Where the soldiers failed, the tax collector failed like- 
wise. Hence, while the Christian Filipinos once paid tribute to Spain 
and now to us, the pagans have always been exempt from taxation. 
All they demand is that they be left alone, and in return they have 
never given Spain nor us any trouble. 

As it will later appear, along certain stretches of the Mindanao 
coast, there are settlements of Filipino Christians. Elsewhere there 
are Moro districts. The pagan tribes occupy the rest of the island 

As it is well known, Mindanao has been the scene of considerable 
disturbance during the past few years. At first the Christian Filipinos 


who rebelled against Spain and against the United States, caused us 
to invade Mindanao and to engage in a tedious warfare tending to 
their submission. These Filipinos, when hard pressed by our troops, 
would rather submit to us than to take any chances of losing 
their lives by retreating into pagan territory. For that reason the 
pagan tribes have been of some service to us; among these are the 
Subanos, of whom I shall presently speak. 

Some time after we had disposed of the troublesome Filipinos, the 
Moros became restless, chiefly through our having invaded their terri- 
tory. Much bloodshed was the result. The Moros are as much dis- 
liked by the pagans as are the Christians, and what has been said about 
the pagans being a barrier which the Filipinos* dare not cross applies 
equally well to the Moros. 

The diversity of races in Mindanao as well as the multiplicity of 
tribes belonging to the several races, each having a different dialect 
and different beliefs, result not only in perpetual misunderstandings, 
but also in frequent clashes of arms. Hence all these tribes are ever 
ready for an emergency, and each individual thereof goes about armed 
with offensive and defensive weapons. I have seen several times these 
people, when about to cross into the territory of a neighboring tribe, to 
venture on the forbidden land armed to the teeth. Bolos, spears, campi- 
laris, knives and shields would make up their equipment, to the point of 
embarrassing their movements. 

Subanos. — I spent an entire year along the coast of Mindanao, 
part of the time with a troop of cavalry in pursuit of a band of rene- 
gades who were causing considerable trouble. These people were fin- 
ally dispersed, many being killed, while the remainder either surren- 
dered or escaped unmolested. The Subanos, who were not in sympathy 
with the rebellious Christians, would not permit them to enter into their 
territory. It was then that I met a Subano chief who gave us assurance 
of his friendship and of his co-operation in our efforts to restore peace 
in the country. After several interviews this chief requested me to 
obtain for him something that would serve to enhance his prestige and 
authority among his own people. He thought that an army revolver 
would be the proper thing, since fire arms were as yet unknown among 
those of his tribe. Before his desire could be satisfied, circumstances 
caused us to transfer our field of operation elsewhere, and our friendly 
Subano never received the prize he so much coveted. 

The Subanos occupy the greater part of the west coast of Mind- 
anao. They are a pacific tribe with limited mental capacity, but affable 
and not wanting in other good traits. They entertain a great respect 
for the aged, and will invite them to take part in all their deliberations 
no matter how poor they may be. 

Their clothing consists of a jacket and of pants either plain or 
striped. The women also wear a jacket with tight sleeves and a 
skirt called patadion, woven by themselves with cocoanut fibres, extend- 
ing from the waist to the ankles. Their hat or salacot is also woven 
with bark of certain trees. 

Their huts are of simple construction, and their utensils consist 
chiefly of an olla or jar for cooking rice, a pan or carajay, and a 
tambobo or large basket in which they store their rice. 

Their religion consists of several superstitious practices. They 
have no idols, however, unlike some of the other tribes. 


The Subano marriage ceremony is preceded by a meeting of the 
parents of the prospective couple in the house of the Timoli or chief. 
A second meeting takes place a few days later, and, upon payment of 
the price agreed upon for the girl at the previous meeting, the latter 
is given over to the beau, and the ceremony is at an end. The Sub- 
anos, however, practice polygamy. In order to obtain an additional 
wife, a certain payment must be made to her parents, a hut must be 
provided for her, and the would-be husband must promise to visit 
her every third day. When they tire of some one of the surplus wives, 
they can return her to her parents, taking back at the same time the 
presents which they offered at the time of marriage. If, however, 
the woman seeks a divorce through some fault on the part of the hus- 
band, she obtains her liberty, but he loses the wedding presents. The 
women are afforded ample protection, and severe penalties are provided 
for those who abuse them. 

When a Subano is about to die, he is surrounded by his relatives 
who display loudly their grief upon his demise. They then wash the 
body, dress it in white, and according to their degree of friendship for 
the departed, they surround his head with more or less pieces of raw 
cocoanut. The body is kept 24 hours in the hut and then it is buried 
near the premises. The funeral ceremony is the occasion for a feast 
at which the mourners eat an abundance of rice, chicken and pig, and 
drink an intoxicant beverage made with fermented rice. This latter 
custom prevails generally among the wild tribes of the Philippines. 

Monte:se:s. — In the valley of Tagaloan, in the province of Misamis, 
and also in that of Surigao, there is a tribe known as the Monteses, 
some of whom have adopted the religion and customs of their neigh- 
bors the Manobos. 

Manobos. — The Manobos live along the banks of the Agusan 
river and its tributaries. They form a numerous but wild and ferocious 
tribe difficult to approach. They build their dwellings on the tree 
tops close to some stream. They cultivate the soil, but each year they 
will raise a crop in a different locality. Their clothing, arms, orna- 
ments and religion are similar to those of their neighbors the Mandayas. 

Bagobos. — At the foot of the volcano Apo, in the province of 
Davao, scattered along the river banks, there is a population of some 
12,000 Bagabos. These are generally people of fine physique, among 
whom the practice of destroying all defective children is in vogue. They 
are industrious and independent. They make it a practice to hold 
slaves, not so much for the purpose of labor as for sacrifices to the gods. 

The Bagobos have no idols, but they believe in a supreme being 
called Diuata, and also in a great devil who is the dispensor of all 
evils, of diseases, hunger, misery and death. This evil spirit, ever 
thirsty for human blood, is the great Mandarangan who resides in the 
volcano Apo. No one would dare ascend the mountain without first 
propitiating this god by the sacrifice of a slave. These unfortunate 
victims are chosen usually from among the prisoners of war belong- 
ing to neighboring tribes. Lacking these, old and infirm Bagobos 
themselves are offered up in sacrifice. When striking the fatal blow 
the following words are pronounced: "Solo dini Mandarangan, qui 
numan diponoc ini manobo ;" Eat O Mandarangan, and drink the blood 
of this man. 


In addition to these two leading spirits, there are several lesser 
ones. In heaven there is a trinity of brothers : Tinguiana, in whom is 
vested great power ; Manama, who rewards and punishes : Todlay, who 
has a wife, and w^ho presides over marriages. This last divinity is 
conciliated by offerings of bnyo or betel, and morisqueta, or boiled rice. 
There is also a virgin in heaven, whose name is Todlibon. 

The Bagobos recognize a chief or Dato, though they are ruled 
mostly by traditions reen forced by the will of the mightier. Their 
arms consist of the spear, the campilan and the arrow. Their mode 
of warfare is mostly surprises and treachery. 

A Spanish missionary, after spending tv/elve years along the 
southern coast of Mindanao, was unable to make any progress towards 
the conversion of these barbarous people, but he succeeded in mastering 
their equally barbarous language, and, upon his return to Manila, he 
published a Spanish-Bagobo dictionary, a copy of which I possess, and 
which will prove of value to those who are desirous of acquiring a new 
tongue or who may contemplate a visit to our Bagobo friends. 

Atas. — To tlie west of the volcano Apo, there exists a warlike 
tribe known as the Atas, who are bitter enemies of the Bagobos as 
well as of the Moros. 

TiRURAYES. — A few years ago, a young Tiruraye Indian, Tenoria 
Sigayan, from Tamonteca, in the province of Cottabato, and not far 
distant from the town of that name, embraced Christianism. He was 
prevailed upon to write a history of his people as he knew it. In his 
own quaint style, he wrote in the Tiruraye dialect, an interesting des- 
cription of the customs of his tribe. This unique work was translated 
into Spanish and published in Manila, where I was so fortunate as to 
acquire a copy of it from which I have made a few extracts. 

The Tiruraye country extends from Cottabato down along the 
coast of Mindanao to the country of the Dulunganes. The people live 
in small dwellings, the entire furniture of which appears to consist 
of a single petate, a mosquito net, an olla for cooking rice, a few utensils 
made from cocoanut shells. They have neither forks nor spoons, and 
eat with their fingers from large leaves which answer for plates. They 
partake of but two meals a day, at noon and in the evening, the menu 
of which may consist of either morisqueta, fruit, various herbs, fish 
and occasionally meat. They have no dessert, but enjoy a chew of buyo 

It is considered bad form to retire from the meal before everything 
eatable has been devoured. Husbands and wives alone enjoy the 
privilege of eating from the same dish. All others must eat from a 
separate plate. If a stranger happens to call, he is invited to dine. If 
he accepts the inivtation, he approaches; if not he replies: "Mica u." 
"I don't want to. That's all." 

The men dress somewhat in the fashion of their neighbors the 
Moros. The women wear a chemise and an emut, a garment which 
corresponds with the patadion of other tribes, and a hat or Sayaf, made 
with a palm leaf. They are fond of bracelets, of rings and of necklaces 
of colored glass. They also wear ear rings of a fair size, according 
to Sigayan, w^ho remarks that the holes in their ears are so large that 
he could readily pass his great toe through them. 


The men also wear ear rings and some other of their wives' orna- 

. The women shampoo with cocoanut milk and retain their coiffure 
by means of a bamboo comb. 

The Tirurayes make use of the same arms as the Moros, spear, 
campiian, dagger, oris and the shield. They are also accustomed from 
infancy to the use of the bow and arrow. The arr,ow points are 
poisoned Ayith the resin of the Quemendag tree, which causes death in 
a few moments. 

They will often kill through malice or for the purpose of robbery. 
They enjoy above all things killing a Moro, provided they do so by 
treachery. They have many grievances against the Moros, one of 
which is that the Mahomedans constantly reproach them with the sin 
of eating the flesh of the pig which they themselves never touch. A 
single mosquito net and a petate, or piece of matting, will suffice for an 
entire family who all sleep huddled together. Upon retiring, how- 
ever, the Tirurayes do not go to sleep at one, but take advantage of 
this close family reunion to repeat the legends of their tribe. The 
women alone appear to remember them and to relate them. They also 
sing a song called fegucktqucs which recalls the deeds of primitive 
men, and repeat the tales of Laquey legeuos, and of Metiatil, and 
of other fabulous heroes of prehistoric times. 

The Tirurayes recognize the existence of a god, whom their priest 
belian sees and converses with during his sleep. This belian tells them 
that they will all go to heaven, at which they greatly rejoice. He also 
beats a drum, which the other Tirurayes can do as well. They also 
believe that there is a bad place especially reserved for their enemies and 
neighbors the Moros. 

Of their lesser divinities nothing will here be said. 

The Tirurayes have faith in the science of palmistry and in charms, 
they carry the. latter about their person. There is one charm, the iletnu, 
which is especially prized for he who carries it is sure to win the love 
of all those whom he meets. Another charm, the rantut, will cause the 
death of the person one hates ; and when the possessor of the ramut 
says to his charm : "ramut ne,'' his enemy at once dies. 

They say that one must never speak of the doings of animals for 
fear of the Sembolouen, This punishment was once meted out to a 
pueblo in the form of a torrential rain, accompanied with wind and 

As to marriages, the parents have the selection unbeknown to the 
parties the most interested, who first become acquainted at the moment 
of the wedding. If after the marriage, one of the parties is dissatisfied 
he is at liberty to find a substitute in the person of a brother or sister, 
as the case may be. 

There are several other methods of contracting marriages, one of 
which is by eloping. An irate father sometimes pursues the fugitives 
with a drawn cris, and yet a parental blessing may take the place of a 
blow from the death dealing weapon. 

When one of a couple dies, be it the woman, if she Jias a sister, 
the latter, even if a mere child, is bound to become the wife pf the wid- 
ower. Without this sacrifice on her part, peace could no longer be 
maintained between the two families. Should the girl object, 
the relatives of the widower become angry and bloodshed is wont to 
follow. Should there be no available sister or female relative to take 


the place of the deceased wife, then her parents must return to the 
husband one half of the wedding gifts which they had received. The 
same rule applies when the husband dies. This is a very ancient cus- 
tom among the Tirurayes. 

Some of this tribe can afford the luxury of as many as ten wives, 
although the first one alone is recognized as the lawful one. 

When a woman is in the family way, she will never eat a crab 
lest her future offspring walk sidewise. 

Seven days after the birth of a child, the parents shave its head, 
leaving, however, a bunch of hair on the top of the head, called ucuy, 
another at the occiput, called serrumdum, and another at each parietal 
eminence, called sunfing. These tufts of hair they say, become the seat 
of the soul. 

The children are bathed four times a day, and are allowed to grow 
up naked until the age of puberty. 

To put their babies to sleep, the mothers place them in an emut, 
which serves as a hammock, and, by means of a rope passed over a beam 
at the ceiling, they raise and lower them alternately till sleep overtakes 

When a child dies, the mother places a small canula of bamboo 
filled with milk beside it, and surrounds the little body with branches 
of the sacred balete tree before burying it. The milk-like juice of this 
tree serves as food, and for this reason the Tirurayes always bury their 
dead at the foot of a balete. 

When an adult dies, the body is washed and a mirror is placed close 
to the head for the purpose of frightening away a certain imaginary 
serpent which devours human bodies; Upon seeing the reflected im- 
age of the face of the deceased, the serpent believes that the latter 
has two heads and one body and escapes in terror. 

If the departed be a man, a cris is placed beside the body as well 
as other personal effects. The mourners keep watch all night, armed 
with spears and crisses with which to kill the serpent should it appear. 

On the following morning the body is rolled in a petate and pre- 
pared for burial. A funeral dinner is then partaken of, during the 
course of which one is never addressed by his name, lest it bring bad 
luck. The body is then carried in a litter by two men to the grave 
and is buried in a very deep hole. The mourners in turn throw a 
handful of dirt upon the body. The grave is then filled and a line^ 
drawn around it with the dull edge of a bolo to keep away the evil 
spirits. While on the way to and from the burial ground, the mourn- 
ers must take care not to step on the toes of their neighbors, nor even 
to jostle them, lest it bring bad luck to the guilty ones, many of whom 
may expect to die in consequence. 

For seven days following the funeral, a fire is kept burning at the 
spot where the deceased gave up the ghost, because the soul does ttot 
reach its final destination at once, but returns frequently to the hpiise 
and requires a light for the purpose of getting about. 

During this period of mourning the family, while eating their 
morisqueta, will roll some of it into a ball the size of the thumb and 
place within it a small piece of meat for the soul of the departed. This 
food is placed into a leaf and is allowed to remain suspended at the wkH 
of the house for seven days. At the concluision df this period a fiOal 
mortuary dinner is giv^i in the house. 


The most intimate friends of the deceased then go to the grave, 
bringing with them a chicken and an olla of rice wihch they then and 
there eat in memory of the departed. The Tirurayes, while having no 
government, are guided in important matters by the counsel of the 
Quefeduanes, the Amirefes and the Bandarra, prominent members of 
the tribe, who enjoy the privilege of not working and of being assisted 
by the others. 

DuLANGANii^s. — The Dulanganes, the immediate neighbors of the 
Tirurayes, are a ferocious people, whom the Moros avoid meddling with, 
in such ill repute do they hold them. They are completely naked save for 
a few leaves and bits of bark with which they cover their loins. They 
live on monkeys, snakes and roots. They have no houses, but dwell 
in caves and in the trunks of trees. Poisoned arrows are their arms. 

BiLANi^s. — Further south there is a tribe of Bilanes, numbering 
about 1,500 individuals, who live on the shores of the lake Buluan and in 
the mountains extending down to the bay of Sarangani. They are 
degraded, timid and docile. They trade with the Christians and Chin- 
ese of Davao and Cottabato. 

TagabElies. — To the west of the laguna Buluan are the Taga- 
belies, a savage people, enemies of all the surrounding tribes. They 
also use poisoned arrows. 

Tagcaolos. — On the west shore of the bay of Davao there is a tribe 
of about 7,000 Tagcaolos, less barbarous and less superstitious than 
the Bagobos. And yet, with them one must have killed in order to 
enjoy some prestige in the tribe. As they sell into slavery members of 
their own tribe, they are considered to be a legitimate prey for the 
Moros and other savage people. They live in constant fear of capture 
and conceal their food and belongings in the most inaccessible places. 
The raiders are sometimes unable to capture any but the old, the women 
and the children, who are unable to resist. 

The color of the skin is lighter than that of the Manobos, Bagobos 
or Bilanes. They have no marriage ceremony, but a widower cannot 
remarry unless he has killed some one or paid a certain sum. Wars are 
therefore, frequent, and it is said that in these wars the widowers are 
especially distinguished for their valor when the love of a maiden is 
the coveted reward. 

Manguangas, — On the left bank of the river Salug, and in the 
woods of that region there is a warlike tribe of Manguangas who make 
continuous raids into the territory of the neighboring tribes. 

Mandayas. — Scattered along the eastern coast of Mindanao there 
is the important tribe of Mandayas Indians. They are of a higher 
order than several of the tribes already enumerated, and have a system 
of government of their own. Their penal code is based on traditions 
and is somewhat severe, the death penalty being often inflicted. 

Their chief is called Harihari and he exerts great influence over 
them, together with Tigulang or ancients. 

Some of the Mandayas are of light complexion and can grow 
beards. But they remove them by means of pincers or even with their 


fingers. They allow their hair to grow, however, and it is often as long 
and abundant as that of the women. 

Their children run about naked, the boys until they are old enough 
to work, and the girls until they reach the age of reason. Up to four 
years of age the children are nameless ; after that they are known by 
a nickname or by an abbreviated Christian name. 

The men wear a shirt and a sort of breeches. The women wear 
a similar shirt and an ajabol or skirt. As ornaments, both sexes wear 
bracelets, rings and anklets. On feast days, they add to these gold 
necklaces, strings of glass beads, alligators' and pigs' teeth, silver 
medals of their own make and bunches of odoriferous herbs. 

Their arms are the spear, the balarao, dagger, and the shield. 
They also keep in their houses bows and arrows for their protection 
against the famous Bagamis, or professional assassins. For among 
them the Bagamis hold a distinct position in society. The costume of 
these bloodthirsty men differs according to the number of assassinations 
they have committed. Those who have from 5 to 10 to their credit, 
wear a red kerchief on their heads; those who count from 10 to 30 
assassinations, wear a red kerchief and a red shirt ; finally those whose 
victims number 20 and over, are dressed entirely in red. In order that 
there may be no misapprehension as to their valor, thdy are accustomed 
to cutting off a bunch of hair from the head of their victim and of 
fastening this trophy to the border of their shield, each bunch of hair 
thereon representing one victim. 

When on the war path, the Mandayas usually protect themselves 
by means of a coat of mail made with three thicknesses of split bejuco. 
When pursued, they seek to retard the advance of the enemy by plant- 
ing on the trail bamboo points of different lengths, and also by con- 
cealing bows and arrows so adjusted as to pierce the enemy as he 

They build their huts upon strategic and almost inaccessible points 
on the hills or upon the tree tops. They usually fight in the morning, 
and prepare ambushes along the roads. When they are unable to kill 
an enemy, they will satisfy their thirst for blood by slaying his relatives 
or neighbors. 

Nearly all violent deaths among them are traceable to unpaid 
debts or to women. In order to marry a man must purchase his 
wife, either by the payment of certain fixed sums, or surrendering 
himself as a slave to his would be father-in-law for several years. 
This custom is also in vogue among Christian Malay tribes. The length 
of service required of the love-sick Mandaya is from 4 to 6 years. 
Sometimes he is required to bind not only himself, but also his children 
yet unconceived, and even his nephews and nieces, to a life of servitude, 
merely to satisfy his love for a woman. If the groom has means, he 
can purchase at once his bride by transferring 6 slaves to his future 
father-in-law. But in addition to this, he must also from time to time 
make offerings of pigs, rice,- tuba, bolos and spears. If after making 
these advances, the young man desires to withdraw his suit, he is at 
liberty to do so, by forfeiting all the presents. If the girl rejects him, 
she must not only return the presents received, but must also give him 
a slave in lieu of her person. The marriage ceremony in itself is 
simple, the two contracting parties merely exchanging a handful of 
rice as a symbol of mutual support. 


These high priced wives are Qften the cause of bloodshed. Any 
wrong doing is avenged even to the death. Feuds may last through 
several generations. If one of the parties is killed in a dispute, the 
aggressor must surrender from 3 to 6 slaves to the relatives of the de- 

Rape is punishable by death or by payment to the parents of 30 
pesos and one slave. Adultery is likewise punishable with death or 
by the payment of 60 pesos and two slaves. A bad debtor is compelled 
to pay double the amount originally due, or he must become the 
slave of his creditor or forfeit his life. 

The Mandayas are fond of buyo and of tobacco. They sometimes 
mix the buyo with caningag, a sort of cinnamon which grows in 
abundance in their country. They blacken their teeth with the among, 
and paint their bodies with the azahache. They are idolaters. Their 
divinity or Manang, is represented by a piece of wood painted with 
the juice of the narra, representing the head and the bust. of a human 
being. In the orbits they insert as eyes, the red fruit of the magubajay. 
The female divinity is similar to the male, with the addition of a comb 
in the hair. 

They recognize two good, spirits, Mansilatan and Badla, father and 
son, and two evil spirits, Pundaugnon and Malimhog, man and wife. 

To these spirits they offer sacrifices either of human beings or of 
animals. The human sacrifices consist in burying the victim up to 
the waist alive and of dancing around him, when each one plants his 
spear into his body. During the feast whicli follows the Mandayas 
occasionally devour the raw entrails of their unfortunate victim. Gen- 
erally, however, animals are chosen, chiefly the. pig and the chicken. 

Their most solemn sacrifice is Bililic. They place their idol upon 
an altar in front of the house of the person who orders and pays for 
the sacrifice, and who then appears and presents to the 12 bailanes who 
are to perform the sacrifice a large size pig. The animal is placed upon 
the altar, and the bailanes, richly attired, at once surround the protest- 
ing pig. Two Mandayas then touch with a guimbao or tambourine the 
parts of the animal consecrated to the divinity invoked. The bailanes 
at the same time dance around the altar singing the Miminsad. They 
then engage in various pantomimes, raising their right hand towards the 
sun or the moon acording to the hour of the sacrifice, and pray for 
the intentions of the one who ordered the Bililic. Immediately after 
this invocation the chief bailan approaches the altar and with her 
balarao or small dagger, she sticks the pig, and applying her lips to 
the wound she sucks the blood of the living animal. The remainder of 
the bailanes follow in turn and do. likewise. If as it sometimes happens 
one of these girls becomes nauseated, it is an ill omen. They then 
return to their places and continue to dance. They next sit down and 
converse with the great spirit Mansilatan, who is supposed to have 
sent them down from heaven to inspire them with what they at once 
prophecy, which is usually a good crop, the cure of some disease, or 
the triumph over some enemy. The pig is then cut up, a portion of 
its body is offered tothe idol, and the feast usually ends in a drunken 

The sacrifice of Talibong is also celebrated with a peculiar solemn- 
ity. Roasted chicken is in this case offered to the divinity together with 
crabs mixed with buyo which itself is a mixture of lime, tobacco and a 
certain fruit and leaf. 


Pagcayan is celebrated according to the tribal rites during a 
period of three days, usually for the purpose of escaping from the 
evils with which they are threatened. A chicken is again sacrificed in 
the celebration of Cayag together with the handfuls of rice which are 
thrown into the air as an oflFering to the sun. 

All these sacrifices invariably terminate in a drunken revelry, tuba 
being usually the intoxicating beverage. 

The Mandayas are very superstitious and attach significance to 
almost every phenomenon of nature, and interpret it in their own 
fashion. For instance if an eclipse of the sun or moon should occur, 
they say that a snake or a tarantula has swallowed it, and in their ex- 
citement they fire their arrows at animals and loudly address the follow- 
ing words to the eclipsed sun or moon: 'Tagcabaton cay ampo," 
"Grandfather, let us see you !" 

They explain an earthquake by saying that a great pig called 
Baybulan, has just reclined against the trunk of the earth, which they 
liken to a tree, and caused it to shake. They then fall to the ground 
and by their cries and supplications they hope to quiet the great Bay- 

Others believe that in the center of the earth there is a huge 
crocodile, which upon awakening causes it to tremble. 

In the most superstitious settlements, within each house there is an 
altar upon which is an idol. To this idol they make offerings of fruit, 
and suspend from its neck a small bag of rice. Each day at sundown, 
while supper is being prepared, a bailan with her pupils dances several 
times around the room singing and then they offer up the following 
prayer: "Placed between evil and good, we pray the liberator that he 
may descend from heaven this great day for our good." 

During the evening the parents tell their children the curious anec- 
dotes of Asuang, the sorcerer ; of Tagamaling, the giant ; of Cucu, the 
dwarf, and the many other fairy tales which they have learned from 
the old women of the tribe. 

The Mandayas bury their dead in the woods together with their 
arms, a shield and an olla of rice in order that they may eat and defend 
themselves while on their way to the great beyond. 

MALAYS. r^^ 


The third race which came to populate the Phillipine islands is 
that of the Malays. These settled mostly along the coast after driving 
inland the original possessors of the soil. They constitute today the 
greater part of the population of the archipelago. Several of the 
Malay tribes have been converted to Christianism, and have made some 
progress towards civilization, while many others have remained to 
the present time in a savage or semi-savage state. 

Calingas. — In northern Luzon, inhabiting the fertile provinces 
of Cagayan and Isabela there lives the ferocious and criiel tribe of 
Calingas, who believe in personal liberty to the point of beheading 
or otherwise putting to death an obnoxious chief. The men trim their 
hair short in front and allow it to fall down their backs, or they tie it 
in a knot on the top of the head. The women wrap their hair around 


the head. Men and women are alike in their filthy habits. Their 
costume is scant and a large palm leaf answers for a hat. 

They are fond of fiestas, and a least once a year each pueblo 
enjoys a period of festivities characterized by much noise, singing, 
dancing and drinking, often terminating in homicides, chiefly through 
the immoderate use of a beverage derived from the juice of the 
sugar cane, called Bassi. 

They profess no religion at all, and marry and unmarry with 
the greatest ease. When a man tires of his wife, he dismisses her, 
allowing her, however, to retain whatever presents she may have 
received in happier days. If the woman abandons her husband, she 
must return what he gave her. 

Maternal love is not very deep with them. Mothers will kill 
their offspring when born out of wedlock, or during widowhood, by 
placing the child into a large jar and suffocating it, or by cutting it 
into pieces. Should they fail to do so, their relatives will do it for 
them. At other times, the Calingas will kill even legitimate children 
when the family becomes too large, or when there are too many girls. 
Nor do the sick receive much consideration from them. Those afflicted 
with smallpox are abandoned and allowed to die like dogs. The lepers 
are taken to the woods where a frail shelter is provided for them, 
and a sufficient quantity of food is left with them for a limited time, 
after which they must make up their mind to die alone and forsaken. 

TiNGUiANES. — Passing into the province of Ilocos Sur, we find 
the Tinguianes, thought by some to be descended from Chinese, owing 
to their fair complexion, their features and their dress. They are 
not wanting in character, virtues and a fondness for commerce and 
industry, and lack only Christianity to be reckoned among the civilized 

iGORROTjejs. — In the central chain of mountains of Northern Luzon 
there is a tribe known as the Igorrotes. This name, which means infidel, 
is applied in a general way to all pagan tribes, but more particularly 
to certain ones. 

The Igorrotes are a strong, well developed, copper-colored people, 
with prominent cheek bones and long straight hair. 

Those of the Quiangan district, in the province of Nueva Viscaya, 
form settlements of from fifty to one hundred houses of wood and 
bamboo. These dwellings are usually small, without windows, and 
with but one entrance to which access is had by means of a bamboo 
ladder. They are ill odored and their occupants often suffer from 
numerous skin diseases. 

The Igorrotes cultivate rice and vegetables. They till the soil 
with a wooden spade, and do not use a plow. Some of these tribes 
live mostly on camote, gabe and corn which are easily grown, and if 
others cultivate rice in their crude manner at the cost of much time 
and labor, it is in response to a sentiment of pride which places the 
rice eater above his fellow tribesmen who subsist on a different food. 

They have certain mechanical skill and manufacture their arms, 
the bolo, the ax and the spear. They also make certain musical instru- 
ments either of iton or bamboo, and a drum from the wood of the 


They do not use buyo, but men and women alike smoke tobacco 
which they carry in a sort of small box called upit, made of bejuco and 

The Igorrotes will not put up with insult or injury and are ever 
ready to seek redress with their spear. Some of the tribes are quite 
warlike, and in addition to the spear or gayang, they use the aligua, 
or short wide hatchet the blade of which is prolonged into a sharp 
point which they plant into the head of an enemy. They protect 
themselves in war by means of a long narrow shield called calata or 

They venerate the old, but they abandon those who fall victims to 
the dreaded small-pox. For other diseases they resort to various 
superstitious practices, and to ablutions; while for intermittent fever 
they employ the bark of a plant called aplay. The medicine man, when 
called to the bedside, at once kills a chicken and examines its liver. 
He then decides that a cure can be effected by the sacrifice of a certain 
number of pigs or carabaos. When the patient dies, the body is placed 
in a sitting posture beneath the house where it remains for from four 
to six days or longer according to the degree of prominence he enjoyed 
during life. 

The Igorrotes believe in a supreme being and in secondary divini- 
ties, usually represented by figures in wood of men on foot or sitting 
with the elbows resting on the knees and the head upon the hands. 

All the greater phenomena of nature cause them much alarm. 
To overcome their fears, they sacrifice birds, pigs and carabaos, the 
entrails of which they consult before devouring them. 

They marry and unmarry with the greatest ease. It is even 
claimed that seldom an Igorrote can be found who has not once or 
oftener changed partners. In addition to offering consolation presents 
to the rejected wife's family, the man must also add a carabao as a 

The wedding is the occasion for much rejoicing, and again 
chickens, pigs and carabaos are eaten, the latter being either old 
and broken down animals, or stolen from some neighboring tribe. 
The festivities usually end in a drunken revelry, their drink being a 
fermented beverage from rice. 

Those among us who have seen the Igorrotes recently on exhi- 
bition in this country, might suppose that these people are all on the 
same social plane. And yet there exists a nobility among them. This 
distinction is not based upon deeds of valor, but upon wealth, and is 
therefore within the reach of many. 

The candidate for nobility begins by making a certain display 
of his wealth. He then proclaims his intention, and this proclamation 
brings from every direction hosts of friends and relatives, ever ready 
to take part in the coming festivities. While the trunk of a tree 
is being carved into the shape of a quadruped without extremities, 
the symbol of nobility, an open air dinner of carabao and pig is in 
progress, after which the figure is carried in procession to the village 
and placed in front of the house of the new noble. The latter then 
comes forth and scatters rice among the spectators, and otherwise 
endeavors to impress them with his wealth and munificence. 

After being carried several times back and forth from the woods 
to the village, the wooden figure is again placed near the house of 
the noble, and a banquet greater than the first is enjoyed by all present. 


Carabaos and pigs are again called upon to satisfy the voracious ap- 
petite of the guests. Scarcely has the newly created noble stricken 
the first blow upon the head of the carabao, than the remainder of 
the Igorrotes, like a pack of hungry wolves, assail the animal with 
knives and literally tear it to pieces in an instant. They then fight 
among themselves for a morsel, so eager are they to enjoy a free dinner. 
In all their feasts a beverage called Bubud plays an important part. 
This is prepared in the following fashion. A handful of powdered 
rice is mixed with the strongly acid juice of a vine and then dried in 
the sun. Rice is next boiled with water and some of the first mixture 
is added to it, when it is all placed into a jar and allowed to ferment 
for eight days. After this it is ready for use. It has a disagreeable 
taste and occasions a furious rage which nothing can control. 

BuRiCKS.— Contiguous to the Igorrotes, on the same side of the 
Mount Caraballos, are the Buricks of the district of Lepanto. They 
tattoo their body, but in other respects they resemble the Igorrotes. 

Ilongote:s. — There are two tribes of savages in the mountains 
of Caraballos Sur which form the northern limit of the province of 
Nueva Ecija, known as the Ibilaos or Ilongotes. They are mortal 
enemies of the Negritos, and are treacherous and cruel. They live in 
settlements of from fifteen to twenty houses each, and subsist on 
caniote, gabe, corn, etc. They fight among themselves when not en- 
gaged in war with their neighbors, and go about armed with the bow 
and arrow, the spear, campilan and a shield. They lay in ambush 
for Christians and pierce them with a spear. As soon as the victim 
falls to the ground they surround him and cut off his head. Their 
children are instructed from youth in the art of beheading an enemy. 

When an Ilongote is about to marry, he agrees with the parents 
of the girl of his choice upon the price that he is to pay for her. This 
rnay be several months of servitude on his part, the gift of a certain 
number of chickens, to which the girl adds the request for several 
human heads, either of Christians or of enemies of her family. It is 
not always convenient for the lover to satisfy this caprice of his 
sweetheart, but he endeavors to please her nevertheless, by presenting 
to her from time to time, human fingers and ears. 

The marriage ceremony in itself is simple, and consists in a family 
reunion at the home of the bride, where chickens and pigs are killed and 
eaten. Dancing closes the festivities and the parents declare the young 
couple married. 

Polygamy does not exist among them, and widows and widowers 
are permitted to marry again. 

When the children are five days old, they receive a name selected 
by some of the persons who witnessed their birth. 

Their houses, of nipa and bamboo, are small, and yet they shelter 
an entire family together with innumerable half starved dogs, of which 
they are particularly fond. These dwellings are of course ill-odorous 
and filthy. 

Their utensils are few, and consist of an olla, a pan, spoons 
made with cocoanut shell, a cup, likewise of cocoanut, and a bamboo 
water jar. They cook upon the floor in a sort of earthen oven. 

Men and women alike, wear their hair long. Their clothing 
consists of a breech cloth or of pants and shirts obtained from the 


Christians. . The children are naked, and like their parents they go 
about armed, from the time they are strong enough to carry a weapon. 

CiMARRONEs. — In Southern Luzon there is a tribe of eight to 
ten thousand Cimarrones, who can scarcely be distinguished from 
the Christians. They keep no domestic animals save the dog, the 
chicken and the pig. When they require cattle they descend upon 
some neighboring ranch and stampede the cattle of the Christians. 
They will then feast upon it till the supply is exhausted. 

The boldest of the tribe becomes chief. Their arms consist of 
the bolo or Minasbad, spears and poisoned arrows. Their drink is 
tuba, a fermented beverage derived from the cocoanut palm. 

Manguianes. — Next to Mindanao and Luzon, the island of Min- 
doro possesses the greatest number of savages. This island is scarcely 
frequented by the Christians and counts but a few settlements along 
the coast. It is inhabited by one important tribe in particular ; that of 
the Manguianes. A difference in physique as well as in customs 
has been noted among these people according to locality. For that 
reason they have been supposed to be of different origin. During 
my stay in the islands, I have often heard it said that in Mindoro 
there existed a lost tribe of white men. Certain tribes of Manguianes 
are indeed light colored with chestnut hair and beard and intelligent 
looking. The Spanish believed that they were the descendants of 
sailors shipwrecked on the west coast of the island several centuries 
ago. The remainder of the natives are dark colored and present 
Chinese features. 

The Manguianes make use of the bolo, spear and poisoned arrows. 
Their dwellings, food and utensils are similar to those of the Christian 
tribes. They believe in a supreme being and in the immortality of 
the soul, the latter remaining however, in the neighborhood of its 
earthly abode. The Manguianes are moral people and. they punish 
severely the transgressors. 

Tagbanuas, Tandolanos, Tinitanos. — In the island of Paragua, 
there are several wild tribes such as the Tagbanuas, Tandolanos, and 
Tinitianos, some of whom appear to be a crossing between Visayas and 
Igorrotes. There are also Moros in the southern part of the country 
and a small Christian settlement at Puerta Princesa. 

These tribes live on palay, camote, bananas and monkeys. 

When a Tinitiano desires to marry, he places the cut trunk of a 
banana plant in front of the house of the girl. If she allows this 
plant to wither before sending a reply, it means non acceptance. If, 
on the contrary, she accepts, then the bridal party meets in her house 
where a wedding feast is partaken of. This consists in wild hog, 
monkeys and rice, buyo and tobacco serving as dessert. They also 
drink pangasi, a beverage derived from fermented rice, nipa vino and 
other drinks. 

They place their dead into a litter made with split bamboo and 
bejuco which they suspend from the branches of the ipil or the bo jo 
tree. If the body is not disturbed until nothing but the bones remain, 
then the departed is believed to be happy in the other world. If on 
the contrary, it should fall to the ground through a malicious inter- 


ference on the part of the monkeys, or for any other cause, then the 
deceased is supposed to be unhappy. All offerings of buyo, bananas 
and rice cease to be placed at the foot of the tree as soon as the body 
falls from above. 

The Tinitianos gather beeswax, and bejuco, which they sell to 
the Christians. 

While in the island of Paragua, I once took occasion to visit a 
native house during the progress of a feast. I found several of the 
men naked save for a breech cloth, while the women wore a skirt 
rtiade with the bark of some tree, and a narrow camiseta which covered 
but a small portion of their chest and allowed the abdomen and b^ck 
to be exposed. Men and women alike were dark skinned and quite 
unattractive. The women performed an ungraceful dance, the tight- 
ness of their skirt impeding their movements. The men furnished 
the music by beating tom-toms and odd shaped drums, while others 
blew into brass instruments which I am unable to describe. 

MoROS. — Throughout the southern islands there are the warlike 
tribes of Malayan Mohammedans known as the Moros. The religion 
of the Prophet was imparted to them at a distant period, either through 
Mohammedan missionaries or traders. From Borneo the Moros passed 
over into the Philippine Islands during the XVI century. They in- 
habit today the chain of islands which lie between Borneo and Paragua 
and that between Borneo and Minanao. They occupy also a portion 
of the island of Mindanao, the Zamboanga and Davao districts and all 
the territory extending from Cottabato in the south to Yligan in the 
north, embracing the beautiful and fertile lake Malanao district. 

In the course of my military service which extends over a period 
of several years in the Philippines, I had occasion to be in Jolo, Zam- 
boanga and the northern Moro country. Through that crcumstance 
I have had the advantage of mingling with these people and of ob- 
serving them at home. 

The Moros have been for centuries renowned for their piratical 
exploits which, up to recent times, interfered with the development of 
the southern portion of the archipelago. 

In the small island of Cuyo, I once visited an old fort built many 
years ago for the purpose of protection against the Moros. At Ilo-ilo, 
on the island of Panay, a fort still standing, was erected in 1617, for 
the same purpose. At Zamboanga, Cebu and elsewhere, fortifications 
were also required. Where the people were not thus protected they 
were frequently assailed unxpectedly by the Moros and either killed 
or carried off into captivity. 

The Moros profess the religion of Mahomet, though it is likely 
of a washed out variety. Still their priests or Panditas, possess copies 
of the Koran, some of which are very handsome manuscripts dating 
back several centuries. Arabic script is still employed by them, though 
reading and writing seem to be confined to the Datos, Panditas and 
other dignitaries. The language of the Moros, is very difficult to 
learn and to remember. There are several grades of priests among 
them. The lowest is the Pandita, then the Jatip, and the Sarip who 
is the highest. In order to attain this high rank, the Sarip must have 
made a pilgrimage to Mecca. I have seen these, and they are recog- 
,nized by a spcial headgear. The superstitions of the people are numer- 
ous. For instance, if a cloud hangs over the mountain top, it nieans 
the death of a Dato. He who sees a snake shedding its skin acquires 


the power of becoming invisible at will. The Moros are polygamists 
and are entitled to as many wives as they can support, the first one 
alone being recognized as legitimate. 

Among the non ecclesiastical officials are the Datos who rule over 
the different districts. They have at their orders lesser chiefs chosen 
from among the free men, the remainder of their subjects being slaves. 
I remember an old Dato in particular who regularly visited our camp 
in his native costume adorned with tin medals, cast off shoulder straps 
of officers, or brass buttons obtained from the soldiers, and any other 
showy article which must have greatly increased his importance in the 
eyes of his people. This Dato was at all times followed by a slave 
carrying upon his shoulder one or even two campilans, while to his 
belt were suspended crisses and daggers. 

In another town I heard of a great Dato whose authority extended 
over a vast region. I called upon him, hoping to meet his many wives 
and to inspect the interior of a Moro palace. To my surprise and dis- 
appointment, I found him to be a gentleman dressed in European 
clothes, speaking excellent Spanish, dwelling in a modern house furn- 
ished with rocking chairs etc., and I failed to see even the shadow of 
the many wives I supposed him to possess. This Dato assured me 
that he was well disposed towards us and that in his district peace 
would ever reign. Since the troubled days of 1899, to the present time, 
events have confirmed the Dato's prophecy. 

He and his suite were invited one day to visit an Army transport 
which had just anchored off the shore. As interpreter, I presented 
the party to the several American ladies who were on board. To my 
disgust, and perhaps to theirs also, the Moros, after bowing to them, 
had their attention distracted by the vessel's steam winch, whereupon 
they withdrew at once from our company to watch the working of 
this apparatus. 

The Moros are ruled by the Sultan of Sulu, who resides in Jolo, 
and who has as vassals the two lesser sultans of Mindanao. The 
Sultan of Sulu has always been jealous of his independence. Spain 
being unable to conquer him was compelled to buy his good will at 
the price of an annuity. Our government did likewise during the 
time that the FiHpinos were giving us much trouble elsewhere. Upon 
the abrogation of the treaty of peace, trouble broke out at once with 
the Moros, and the end is not yet. 

All Moros are born warriors. As pirates they were skillful nav- 
igators, being as much at home in the water as on land. As soldiers 
they are brave and ferocious when on the defensive. 

Among their good traits is sobriety, rice, fruit, fish satisfying 
their appetite and water their thirst. They are agile and can swiftly 
climb a mountain or a tree, and either swim across a torrent or cross it 
on a bamboo pole. 

Many of their settlements are on the coast or along streams which 
afford them facilities for fishing. They are not fond of laboring work, 
such in their opinion, being only fit for slaves. They traffic with the 
Chinese to whom they sell pearl shells, birds nests, sharks fins, abaca, 
hides, and various other articles. To the Americans they sell fabrics, 
arms, jewelry and anything which may take our fancy. 

Their penal code is severe, the death penalty being the usual pun- 
ishment for all crimes. The mode of execution is usually decapitation^ 


or the criminal is made to serve as a target for a Dato desirous of 
trying his firearms or the keen edge of his cris upon him. 

The Moros, not unlike other colored races, are fond of showy- 
colors in their dress. The men wear pants which are quite wide, but 
narrow at the ankles, and a jacket which Js short and tight fitting at 
the sleeves, insuring thereby freedom of motion. Upon their head 
they wear a kerchief rolled in the fashion of a turban. The principal 
men wear silk clothing embroidered with gold. The slaves go about 
in scant attire and do not appear to suffer from the scorching rays 
of the sun striking upon their bare backs. 

At one point where I was stationed, the Moros held a weekly 
market in a shadeless place where they squatted in rows beside their 
wares. Chickens, eggs, grain were displayed as well as' jewelry, 
cloths, brass wares, matting, baskets and many other such articles. 

The Moros are skillful in the mechanical arts, and their cloths 
and matting are often quite beautiful in design and color. 

They manufacture silver bracelets and rings and also make them 
of carabao horn. Their buyo boxes are of various metals sizes and 
shape; some are of brass, ornamented or plain, or inlaid with silver. 

But where their skill is above all evident is in the manufacture of 
arms. They temper steel to perfection, and their daggers and crisses 
are often provided with beautifully carved ivory handles with silver 
trimmings. Others have wooden handles generally made with the root 
of the Camuning or other tree. 

The arms of the Moros are the Campilan, a sort of long machete 
provided with a carved wooden handle often ornamented with a hair 
panache. The sheath consists of two strips of wood held together 
by a ring of bejuco. It is unnecessary to draw the weapon from the 
sheath to strike an enemy, the blow in itself being sufficient to cut the 
bejuco and to set free the blade. The Cris is either straight or wavy, 
and consists of a narrow blade with two cutting edges. The dagger 
is likewise cris shaped, and. often very beautiful, some having 
ivory handles, carabao horn sheath and silver mountings. The Barong 
is a wide short weapon with very sharp edge and a carved handle of 
wood. Their protective arms are the shield which may be either cir- 
cular or elliptical, of wood or of wood covered with carabao hide ; the 
coat-of-mail either of caraboa horn or of metal; helmets, of caraboa 
hide or of brass. When not in use against an enemy, the shield serves 
the purpose of a hat. I have occasionally seen in the Lanao district 
Moros wearing these wooden headgears two feet in diameter. I also 
met one day, coming down the trail, a Moro naked save for a breech 
cloth, wearing upon his head a brass helmet of a XVI century pattern. 

At first it was a wonder to me how the savage Moros could be 
equipped with armor of the XVI century. Upon questioning a Spanish 
Filipino sergeant who took part in the campaign of 1895 against the 
Lanao Moros, he told me that when the Spanish troops entered Mar- 
ahui, they encountered a great many Moros thus equpped. He be- 
lieved that many of the coats of mail were indeed very old. Tradition 
has it that in the XVI century a Spanish expedition was cut to pieces 
by the Moros who thus acquired the Spanish armor. History confirms 
this tradition for about the year 1595, an attempt was made to conquer 
the island of Mindanao, but the expedition which had landed at Cotta- 
bato was soon annihilated by the fanatical Moros. 

T have seen some of these coats of mail in which the coat of arms 
of Spain were inlaid with precious metal, and which to all appearances 


were of ancient make. The brass helmets are of modern manufacture 
though of an ancient design. 

In addition to steel weapons, the Moros make use of firearms, 
more particularly of lantacas or small cannon which they place in 
their forts or Cottas, and upon their war canoes. Up to the close of 
the XVIII century there existed in Manila a gun foundry, which ac- 
counts for the large number of old cannon to be found throughout 
the archipelago. The Moros, in their piratical expeditions, would cap- 
ture Spanish or Filipino boats thus armed, or they would seize the guns 
found ashore. They also probably manufactured some themselves, 
since they were able to produce their own powder and ammunition. 

The Moros make a skillful use of their arms in war, relying also 
largely upon tactics for success. They are at a disadvantage it is true 
when confronted with rifles and rapid fire guns, though they neverthe- 
less display great resisting power when cornered in their Cottas, and 
seem to prefer death to surrender. 

I cannot dismiss the subject of the Moros without saying a few 
words about the Juramentados. The Mohammedans are fanatics who 
believe that dying while killing Christians will ensure them a higher 
place in heaven. When a Moro, therefore, thinks it is time to seek 
his heavenly reward, he appears before a priest or Pandita and takes 
the oath to die in killing. He shaves off his eyebrows, and concealing 
under his clothes a cris or other like weapon, he repairs to a neighbor- 
ing Christian village and slashes right and left all whom he encounters 
until he himself is dispatched. Many instances of such unprovoked 
attacks on the part of the juramentados are on record. In one case a 
young Moro who had found shelter in a Spanish family, suddenly 
seized a cris which was hanging on the wall and either killed or wound- 
ed several of the household before he could be stopped. 

In spite of this fanatical inclination towards murder, the Moros 
are at times quite friendly with the Christians. My house in particular 
appeared to be their rendezvous on market days, perhaps because I 
had acquired a reputation among them of being an easy buyer, Moros 
would constantly flock uninvited to my room and make themselves 
quite at home under my roof. Upon the chairs they would squat, help 
themselves to cigars and water, smoke and chew at ease, scrutinize 
the room, and forgetting that there is such a thing as a crime of lese- 
majeste, pass their hands about my neck and examine the collar 
ornaments and buttons of my uniform. Upon the walls of my room 
I had displayed a large number of war implements. To these the 
Moros were particularly attracted. Not waiting to see whether they 
had or not shaved their eyebrows, I would at once place myself be- 
tween the Moros and the crisses to prevent them from laying their 
hands upon them. It then required some diplomacy and a liberal 
distribution of cigars to get the Moros out of the house. Once out- 
side however, they would sit on the door steps until it pleased them to 

In my absence, these Moro visits proved to be a source of great 
uneasiness to my wife, who was then alone with our sixteen month 
old son. On these occasions she was still more liberal in her distribu- 
tion of cigars, which our babe would not hesitate to place in their 
hands. The Moros would then smile a hideous smile, displaying a 
row of blackened and filed off teeth, and would depart saying : "Ma- 



During the Spanish rule in the PhiHppines it was customary to 
speak of the native Christians as Indios Filipinos, in contradistinction 
to Espanol Filipino, which meant Spanish people born in the islands. 
Since the revolution, however, the term Indios is no longer applied 
to the natives who now proudly call themselves Filipinos. And yet 
the Christian tribes form only a portion of the population of the arch- 
ipelago, just as we form but a portion of the inhabitants of the Ameri- 
can continent, while styling ourselves Americans. Filipinos, then, while 
meaning in a broad sense all natives of the Filipino Islands, is through 
an accepted custom, restricted to the Christian tribes alone. Of these 
there are several, such as the Babuyanes in the islands of that name 
and in the Batanes, which lie between Luzon and Formosa, the Cagay- 
anes and the Ilocanos in Northern Luzon, the Pangasinanos, in Central 
Luzon, the Tagalogs about Manila and in Southern Luzon, the Visayans 
in the entire group of Visayas islands and along the coast of Mindanao. 
These tribes differ somewhat both physically and morally besides speak- 
ing separate tongues. The only real bond of union between them seems 
to be founded on their religion which is the same. It would require 
too much time to describe minutely each of these several tribes which 
we have grouped together under the generic name of Filipinos. A 
general description of them alone will be attempted, making allowances 
for slight differences which may exist between the several tribes. 

The Filipinos are copper-colored short people, resembling some- 
what the Japanese. They are usually well proportioned, the Visayan 
women in particular being noted for their beautiful shoulders and chest. 
The hair is black and coarse and quite abundant upon the head. The rest 
of the body is hairless. Some men. display a trace of a moustache or 
beard, but these are generally of mixed blood. The face is usually 
broad, the lips heavy, the nose flattened, the cheek bones prominent, 
the eyes black and the occiput flattened. 

As we noted already, the tribes which we call Filipinos are a cross- 
ing between the Malays and the Chinese. In some provinces more 
than others, the obliquity of the eyes is very apparent and betrays to a 
marked degree an Asiatic ancestry. At the time of the discovery of 
the Philippine Islands, the Chinese were already there,' and since then 
the immigration has been constant, and through their marriage with 
Filipina women only, they have left a strong impression on the race. 
To their Chinese blood the Filipinos owe whatever good traits they 
possess and whatever success they have attained in business and pol- 
itics, though they cherish a deep hatred for the Chinese. Many of the 
leading men of the revolution were Chinese mestizos. The Filipinos 
are indolent, in a large measure owing to climatic causes, changeable, 
and often child-like. They are sensitive neither to physical nor to 
mental pain to any marked degree. Their stoicism is at times wonder- 
ful, and yet it may be misleading as to their true feelings. Residents 
of many years of the islands have repeatedly told me that the "Indio 
es muy traidor," and that no reliance can be placed in him. I believe, 
though, that the FiHpinos have some good qualities, that they are 
docile, inquisitive, with a keen power of observation and imitation, 
but that they act less from reflection than from impulses or fear. While 
an excess of kindness or of familiarity with them is interpreted as a 
manifestation of fear on our part, so on the other hand, cruel or unjust 
treatment, and especially any display of contempt for them lead them 


to seek revenge. They sometimes cherish in their hearts for years a 
sentiment of enmity awaiting a chance to satisfy their passion, or by 
giving away to an impulse, they may commit most atrocious deeds, and 
immediately afterwards regret them. Others will go to church and 
pray before committing murder. All of this has been amply proven 
during the revolution. 

My experience and that of many others is that little faith need 
be placed in what a FiHpino says. His first reply is often a lie, and if 
confronted with bare facts, he will most audaciously deny them and 
twist them with great skill so as to present a plausible explanation. At 
other times he may refuse to answer, and the most dire threats cannot 
bring from his lips any statement that might be contrary to his inter- 
ests. This was most apparent during the war, and the refusal of pris- 
oners to give any information which might have helped our cause, has 
at times led to abuses of authority. 

The Filipinos do not appear to be much inclined to the pleasures 
of the senses. They are fairly sober, though many of them become 
intoxicated with native fermented drinks, such as tuba, vino, and the 
like. They are not lacking in intelligence, and have a good memory. 
They readily acquire languages, and some of their children have in a 
short time learned to speak English remarkably well. 

The women are more religious than the men, and yet I believe that 
most of them follow more the outward forms of religion than its true 
spirit, and that their religious practices are very much mixed with 
those of their pagan ancestors, when they do not border on the bur- 
lesque. For instance, on Good Friday night, in Iligan, a few years 
ago, I was startled by a sudden violent disturbance and shouting, which 
caused me to believe that the Moros were attacking the village. It, 
however, proved to be nothing but the performance of an innocent 
religious ceremony at the church. A pig, alive and active, was dis- 
guised as a devil, with horns and other symbols of evil, and at a given 
time was turned loose in the church, when the congregation to manifest 
their hatred of Satan, assailed the terrified animal with sticks and 
stones and chased it out into the road. 

In Surigao, I witnessed a religious procession where clowns were 
jumping about the sacred images and by their pantomimes amused the 
faithful, while the padre followed in prayer. Many other examples 
could be given, recalling the Mysteries of the Middle Ages. 

The Filipinos are born musicians and have displayed so much 
talent as to have been enlisted as musicians in the U. vS. military bands 
in Manila. I have seen several of Aguinaldo's military bands, in 1898, 
march and play in perfect unison, without either leader or even music. 
In a little village of Mindanao the native band was in the habit of 
serenading us in the evening, but as they often played Aguinaldo's 
march for the want of any other air, we decided to teach some of our 
favorite music. The leader was called into our quarters and one of my 
comrades whistled a tune which the Filipino listened to attentively. 
He returned another evening, and the same performance was gone 
through again. Shortly afterward the band played Yankee Doodle 
and several other popular airs much to our delight. How this musician 
could have in so few lessons learned these airs and taught them to his 
band was indeed surprising, since we had no written music. 

The Filipinos are skillful in the mechanical arts, and have attained 
some renown as silversmiths. A large number of them are employed 


in the machine shops at the Cavite naval station. They can also handle 
the most delicate scientific instruments in the great Manila observatory. 
Their ambition, however, is not on a par with their aptitude. They are 
too much under the influence of traditions which they either dare not 
or will not disregard. For that reason, I have found great difficulty 
in inaugurating modern methods in a village over which I had juris- 
diction in sanitary matters, during the cholera epidemic of 1902. A 
native physician, graduate of a Spanish college, permitted his wife to be 
subjected to a method of treatment based on some ancient tribal custom 
which seriously endangered her life. I asked him why he tolerated 
such a thing, and he replied with a shrug of the shoulders : "Costumbre 
del pais !" it is the custom of the country. 

The upper class of Filipinos, except in physique, resemble very 
much the Spanish, from whom they acquired their polite language and 
graceful manners. Many of these have received an excellent education 
either in Manila or in Spain, and have adopted professional careers; 
that of the law being with them as with us, conducive to political hon- 
ors. In medicine, some have achieved renown, such as the unfortunate 
Rizal, whose patriotism led to his execution ; in politics, Mabini among 
others was prominent; Luna achieved renown as an artist; and Arel- 
lano, today, is considered to be the most eminent and honorable jurist 
of the Filipino race. 

Commerce is not so much in the hands of the natives as in those 
of foreigners, chiefly the Chinese. The well-to-do Filipinos are in 
many instances planters who derive a sufficient revenue from their 
sugar estates to live in luxury, though with modern methods their 
property could be made to yield much greater returns. 

In Manila, there are many beautiful Filipino homes as well as in 
the chief towns of the provinces. Built especially in accordance with 
climatic requirements, they are comfortable and often embellished with 
rich furniture and imported works of art. The middle class of Filipinos 
ignore all rules of hygiene and live huddled together in small houses, 
one room accommodating as many as fifteen or twenty people. They 
cultivate small parcels of land or fallow some trade, the women often 
being lavanderas or washerwomen. Their transportation facilities con- 
sist in a cart drawn by a water buffalo or carabao, or a trotting bull, 
which latter also answers for a horse for the quilez or carriage. Many 
of the men are fishermen by occupation and make use of the seine, 
traps or the hook. 

While performing the duties of quarantine officer in Ilo-Ilo, in 
1899 and 1900, I was daily for many months in my steam launch, and 
often I spied in the distance a straw hat which appeared to be floating 
upon the surface of the water. Upon approaching, however, I would 
discover beneath the hat a Filipino standing submerged up to his neck 
in the cold water, patiently waiting, rod in hand, for a fish to bite at his 
line. Torchlight fishing is also indulged in at night, and the effect is 
very striking. 

The country people approach the savage tribes in their habits and 
customs as well as in dress. They work in the fields, plant rice, camote 
or other crops, and live in small huts in a thoroughly primitive fashion. 
Grasshoppers even are relished by them. Some of these people have 
resorted to savage life, and have formed bands of marauders known as 
Tulisanes, who terrorize the country. These robbers and murderers 
live upon loot and rapine, their usual war implement being a bolo, the 


handle of which represents generally some grotesque figure. The 
Tulisanes tales could fill a volume of sensational matter. Only one 
example shall I give as an illustration. In the year 1900, a band of 
Tulisanes descended upon a village of the province of Ilo-Ilo, stam- 
peded the cattle, murdered those whom they encountered, and set fire 
to the residence of the Presidente local, or mayor, whose body was cre- 
mated in the ruins, and left his son for dead on the road. I attended 
this unfortunate young man, whose body was a mass of wounds; his 
left hand was cut off, his jawbone was split on both sides of the mouth 
by two blows from the terrible bolo, his shoulder was laid open, the 
same blow nearly severing his head. In spite of this frightful mutila- 
tion, the victim recovered, and from him I obtained the details of the 
raid. Unfortunately for the peaceful Filipinos, this story is often 

The dwellings of the poorer classes of Filipinos consist of houses 
made of bamboo and nipa, bejuco serving to bind the parts together. 
The roof is first constructed and then raised upon poles; the floor of 
split bamboo is next built about four or five feet above the soil. Nipa 
leaves serve as walls ; a bamboo ladder leads to the front door, and the 
windows are closed by means of nipa blinds which are raised or lowered 
at will. A slender partition sometimes divides the house into rooms. 
A wooden bench surrounds the room upon which family and guests 
alike squat and lounge while smoking cigars. Upon the floor, a piece of 
matting or petate is spread at night in guise of a bed. From the walls 
hang various bright colored chromos, usually of some favorite saint. 
The kitchen is on the porch in the rear, and consists in a box of dirt with 
two large stones in the center, between which a fire is kindled. The 
kitchen utensils are few, and consist of pots of earthenware, spoons and 
ladles of cocoanut shell, a large olla or jar for the water, a bamboo pole 
in which to carry it, baskets for the rice or palay, a mortar and pestle 
to crush the grain, and a bolo, for general use. Dogs and chickens 
wander about freely among the many naked children to be found in 
every household. The fighting cock in the Phillippines occupies the 
first place in the hearts of the people. This bird is carried about in 
the arms of its owner, and is shown more attention than even wife or 
children ever receive. Beneath the house roam bands of emaciated 
and grunting pigs, whose appetite seems never to be satisfied, though 
in the matter of selection of food, the Filipino hog is far from being 
hard to please. In the outlying districts, the houses are surrounded 
with a bamboo fence interwoven with branches of trees, and with large 
quantities of dry brush, to impede the ingress of the much dreaded 
Tulisanes. Barking dogs are in these localities more numerous than 
elsewhere. Adjoining the houses are to be found posos or wells, usual- 
ly shallow, wherein gathers all the surface water of the neighborhood. 
From these holes is drawn water for drinking purposes, for cooking, 
bathing and washing. The latter two functions take place by the side 
of the wells, where the dirty water finds its way back in a short time. 

The Filipinos are clean about their person and bathe frequently. 
They stand beside a well, and filling a can with water, raise it above 
their head and pour it as a douche over the body. The women then dry 
their hair in the sun, while an accommodating neighbor passes her 
hands through it in quest of an ever present vermin. They then sham- 
poo with cocoanut oil of which they seem to be fairly saturated, and 
dress again in their comfortable garments. The men generally are 
dressed in white, wearing their shirt outside of their trousers. 


In speaking of the wild tribes we have seen how a lover is compelled 
to work as a servant in the house of his sweetheart for months, nay 
for years, before being accepted. This custom also prevails among the 
Christians, more particularly in the country districts, in spite of the 
opposition of the padre who is at times called upon to bless a marriage 
unauthorized by the parents, though in the Philippines human weak- 
ness does not as a rule leave a stain upon the woman's character. 

In marriage, the man is expected to bring the dot, to offer presents to 
the girl's family, and even to become their servant. The only weddings 
which I have witnessed were blessed by the padre just w^ithin the 
church door. A wedding dinner follows the religious ceremony, and 
this is usually given in the bride's parental home. A curious feature 
of this ceremony is that the groom's family must not only stand all 
the expenses, but must also attend to every minute detail of the feast, 
to the point even of not finding time to witness the church service. 
They must receive and wait upon the invited guests as so many ser- 
vants. I was once invited to a wedding banquet given in honor of the 
tardy marriage of a Spaniard to his former querida, and I was some- 
what surprised hot to meet the bride at the festive board. She was 
not even presented to the guests, and might have been one of the many 
women who were serving the dinner, which was partaken of by men 

The funeral ceremonies of the Filipinos differ somewhat according 
to provinces. In the interior of Panay I have seen bodies of children 
drawn to the cemetery in hand carts preceded by musicians blowing 
into wooden instruments. Elsewhere, the bodies are placed into a 
sort of a cradle and surrounded with flowers and candles. The poorer 
classes bury their dead rolled into pieces of matting in lieu of coffins. 
When a body is placed into a coffin it is always taken to the grave 
exposed, the lid of the coffin being carried upon the head of one of 
the mourners. In times of epidemics, funerals must be expedited as 
a matter of course. In a small Visayan town of Mindanao, during my 
stay there, the natives were dying at the rate of eight or ten daily, 
and sometimes more. The bodies were carried in litters and placed 
upon the steps, in front of the church. Twice a day, during the cooler 
hours of the morning and evening, the padre would come forth and 
dispatch them all at once. A relative usually walks beside the coffin 
sheltering with an umbrella the face of the deceased from the rays of 
the sun. Occasionally two lay church officials walk ahead, chanting 
as they proceed, while the mourners straggle along behind, sometimes 
at a great distance, usually smoking a cigar. Seldom have I ever been 
able to distinguish among them who was the nearest relative of the 
deceased, from the lack of any outward manifestation of grief. Hap- 
pening one day into the cemetery of Surigao, I beheld a Filipino dig- 
ging a hole and scattering about the bones of some previously departed 
fellow citizen. This cemetery was overcrowded, and it was necessary 
to displace the dead from their earthly abode to make room for the new 
comers, a practice which is not revolting to the Filipinos. I addressed 
this grave digger who appeared to be in a jocose mood, and asked him 
if he was about to plant some one there. He said that he was. I then 
asked him if he was to shed any tears over the departed. "By-and-by 
I shall," he replied, always smiling ; "for I am about to bury my sister." 

During the cholera epidemic of 1902, I was in charge of the sanitary 
service in two towns. In order to ascertain as near as possible the 


cause of death, I forbade any interments lest I had first seen the body 
and given a permit. In this manner I visited a large number of huts 
and witnessed many sad scenes. The custom among the Filipinos is 
to dress the body in clean clothes and to expose it upon a piece of mat- 
ting lying on the floor, surrounded with burning candles. The mourn- 
ers sit about the room either talking or praying. The favorite religious 
book of the natives is the Passion. This is more than an account of the 
Passion of Our Lord, but also a history of the world. They read .this 
book on all occasions, and of course during the wake. Entering one 
day a native hut, I found upon the floor the body of a young woman. 
Several females stood about, apparently unconcerned as they could 
be. Owing to the semi obscurity of the place, I could not well distin- 
guish the features of the deceased, but I noticed two large dark colored 
masses upon the face, concealing the eyes. My curiosity being 
aroused, I approached the body and to my horror I saw that those 
dark masses were composed of millions of red ants which were devour- 
ing the eyes of the corpse. 

The birth of a Filipino child is the occasion of great rejoicing, of 
which one illustration will serve as an example. A prominent Filipino 
of my town, was presented with a son. A few days later I received an 
invitation to the feast, but not to the church ceremony. As my window 
faced on the plaza, I was nevertheless enabled to witness the whole 
affair. Preceded by the village band, there came a quilez, or small 
carriage, in which were several women and the newborn babe. This 
was followed by relatives and friends on foot, the men in white, shirts 
outside of the trousers, and wearing upon the head a. black derby hat, 
a most unbecoming headgear for these people. The women were also 
on foot and richly attired in their native costume. Upon repairing to 
the house at the conclusion of the religious ceremony, I found the 
large reception room filled with native ladies and gentlemen. The for- 
mer were sitting together, while the men stood about smoking and 
drinking beer and wines. 

Dancing and music were in order. The proud father was every- 
where at once, ever smiling and happy. The baby, however was invis- 
ible, and so was its mother. . No one seemed to care about them, nor 
even to enquire after them. Having visited the family professionally, 
I considered it my privilege to pay my respects to the mother. Pene- 
trating into her bedroom I nearly stepped upon the infant which was 
lying upon the floor beside its mother, the obscurity of the place con- 
trasting with the brilliant light of the reception hall. Believing that 
the lady must be feeling sad, in her solitude, I endeavored to cheer 
her, but without success, for she seemed to take her neglect as a matter 
of course. 

The neglect of the women in Filipino ceremonies is a trait of their 
character which does not recognize the equality of the beautiful sex. In 
my official capacity I frequently attended public functions, and a descrip- 
tion of one will serve to illustrate all the dinners. As a rule women 
are excluded from the table, even, when as it occurred in one instance, 
the banquet which I attended was given in the honor of the birthday 
of a prominent Filipino^s wife. In those rare instances where women 
are permitted at table, they must all sit on one side, and the men on the 
opposite. The menu is always about the same: the unavoidable suck- 
ling pig, goat meat, pork and other viands, rice, fruit and indescrib- 
able pastry, various drinks, tobacco and coffee. The center piece in 


one instance, proved to be the most attractive ornament of the table. 
It consisted of a huge bunch of toothpicks ! Not ordinary toothpicks, 
however, but shaped like fans and other objects, betraying a certain 
amount of skill and a great deal of patience in their making. 

On Christmas day, 1901, I was alone in a native village with a lieu- 
tenant and a troop of cavalry. Though several of our men had been 
treacherously slain by the villagers a few weeks before, we believed 
it to be good policy to display a friendly feeling towards the principal 
men of the place. So we invited several of them, to the number of 
eight, to partake of our Christmas dinner. The dimensions of our 
table, and also of our dining room, precluded a larger assembly. To 
our consternation, the guests began to arrive in groups, far exceeding 
the number of invitations sent out. The house was soon filled to over- 
crowding with men, women and children, and the air was vitiated with 
tobacco fumes and the odor of cocoanut oil. Still they came, each 
guest accompanied it seemed by all his relatives, while the principal 
one, a Spanish half-cast, had not yet made his appearance. To our 
relief, however, this gentleman finally arrived unaccompanied even by 
his native wife. I explained to him the embarrassing situation, but he 
made light of it, and by a wave of his hand, he sent the superfluous 
visitors out into the kitchen, where two of our troopers attended to 
their wants. As there were many children in the party, I endeavored 
to soothe their feelings by offering them candies. The older ones pre- 
ferred cigars, however, and proceeded to smoke them at once. 

Before bringing to a close this long talk on the people of the Philip- 
pines, it seems not out of place to say a few words about certain fab- 
rics which are much appreciated by the islanders either for their use- 
fulness or for their beauty. 

From the cocoanut palm is derived a coarse fibre which is employed 
by the savage tribes, and by the Christians of the poorer classes, and 
with which they make articles of clothing, such as the rain coat in 
general use among them. From the leaf of the same palm and also of 
others, hats, matting and sugar sacks are made. 

From the abaca (musa textilis), the so-called Manila hemp, which 
grows in the Philippines only, the natives extract a fibre which serves 
not only for manufacturing ropes, but also for the making of many ar- 
ticles of clothing, such as shirts for the men and the panuelo and cam- 
iseta, indispensible in the make up of the women's toilette. From the 
leaf of the pina (bromelia ananas) or pine apple tree, fibres are ob- 
tained with which the Filipinos make a most beautiful and costly mater- 
ial that serves also for the toilette and which they embroider most 

Cotton and silk are also much employed, and certain provinces are 
justly famed for the delicate texture of their fabrics; among these 
being Ilo-Ilo, in the island of Panay, and the southernmost portion of 
Luzon, where the beautiful jusi cloth is manufactured. Considering 
that the Filipinos employ looms made of bamboo and bejuco, and other 
crude appliances, it is wonderful how they can produce such delicate 
work, except by a display of great patience and of far greater skill, in 
which the women particularly excel. 

BiSRKELEY, California, April 17, 1906. 





Subanos - 5 

Monteses - 6 

Manobos ... 6 

Bagobos - - - 6 

Atas _ . . , 7 

Tirurayes - 7 

Dulanganes . . . 1() 

Bilanes - 10 

Tagabelies 10 

Tagcaolos - - 10 

Manguangas - - - 10 

Mandayas - - 10 

MALAYS Pagan Tribes - 13 

Calingas - - - - 13 

Tinguianes - - 14 

Igorrotes - - - - 14 

Buricks - - - 16 

Ilongotes - - - 16 

Cimarrones - - - 1 7 

Manguianes - - - - - 1 7 

Tagbanuas - - - - 1 7 

Tandolanos - - - 17 

Tinitianos - - 1 7 

Moros - - .16 

Christian Tribes - - ~ 22